Sunday, September 28, 2014

Visual Arts Vocabulary/Techniques for Painting

ANALOGOUS - Refers to closely related colors; a color scheme that combines several hues next to each other on the color wheel.

ARBITRARY COLORS - Colors selected and used without reference to those found in reality.

ASYMMETRY - A balance of parts on opposite sides of a perceived midline, giving the appearance of equal visual weight.

BACKGROUND - The part of the picture plane that seems to be farthest from the viewer.

BALANCE - The way in which the elements in visual arts are arranged to create a feeling of equilibrium in a work of art. The three types of balance are symmetry, asymmetry, and radial.

COLOR - The visual sensation dependent on the reflection or absorption of light from a given surface. The three characteristics of color are hue, value, and intensity.

COLOR RELATIONSHIPS - Also called color schemes or harmonies. They refer to the relationships of colors on the color wheel. Basic color schemes include monochromatic, analogous, and complementary.

COLOR THEORY –Color is an element of art. Color has three properties: hue, value, and intensity.

COMPLEMENTARY COLORS - Colors opposite one another on the color wheel. Red/green, blue/orange, and yellow/violet are examples of complementary colors.

COMPOSITION - The organization of elements in a work of art.

CONTENT - Message, idea, or feelings expressed in a work of art.

CONTRAST - Difference between two or more elements (e.g., value, color, texture) in a composition; juxtaposition of dissimilar elements in a work of art; also, the degree of difference between the lightest and darkest parts of a picture.

COOL COLORS - Colors suggesting coolness: blue, green, and violet.

DESIGN -The plan, conception, or organization of a work of art; the arrangement of independent parts (the elements of art) to form a coordinated whole.

DOMINANCE - The importance of the emphasis of one aspect in relation to all other aspects of a design.

ELEMENTS OF ART - Sensory components used to create works of art: line, color, shape/form, texture, value, space.

EMPHASIS - Special stress given to an element to make it stand out.

EXPRESSIVE CONTENT - Ideas that express ideas and moods.

FIGURATIVE - Pertaining to representation of form or figure in art.

FOREGROUND - Part of a two-dimensional artwork that appears to be nearer the viewer or in the front. Middle ground and background are the parts of the picture that appear to be farther and farthest away.

FOCAL POINT - The place in a work of art on which attention becomes centered because of an element emphasized in some way.

FUNCTION - The purpose and use of a work of art.

GENRE - The representation of people, subjects, and scenes from everyday life.

HARMONY - The principle of design that combines elements in a work of art to emphasize the similarities of separate but related parts.

HUE - Refers to the name of a color (e.g., red, blue, yellow, orange).

INTENSITY - Also called chroma or saturation. It refers to the brightness of a color (a color is full in intensity only when pure and unmixed). Color intensity can be changed by adding black, white, gray, or an opposite color on the color wheel.

MEDIA - Plural of medium, referring to materials used to make art; categories of art (e.g., painting, sculpture, film).
MIDDLE GROUND - Area of a two-dimensional work of art between foreground and background.

MONOCHROMATIC - A color scheme involving the use of only one hue that can vary in value or intensity.

MOTIF - A unit repeated over and over in a pattern. The repeated motif often creates a sense of rhythm.

NEGATIVE - Refers to shapes or spaces that are or represent areas unoccupied by objects.

NEUTRAL COLORS - The colors black, white, gray, and variations of brown. They are included in the color family called earth colors.

NONOBJECTIVE - Having no recognizable object as an image. Also called nonrepresentational.

ORGANIC - Refers to shapes or forms having irregular edges or to surfaces or objects resembling things existing in nature.

PATTERN - Anything repeated in a predictable combination.

POSITIVE - Shapes or spaces that are or represent solid objects.

PRIMARY COLORS - Refers to the colors red, yellow, and blue. From these all other colors are created.

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN - The organization of works of art. They involve the ways in which the elements of art are arranged (balance, contrast, dominance, emphasis, movement, repetition, rhythm, subordination, variation, unity).

PROPERTIES OF COLOR - Characteristics of colors: hue, value, intensity.

RHYTHM - Intentional, regular repetition of lines of shapes to achieve a specific repetitious effect or pattern.

SCALE - Relative size, proportion. Used to determine measurements or dimensions within a design or work of art.

SECONDARY COLORS - Colors that are mixtures of two primaries. Red and yellow make orange, yellow and blue make green, and blue and red make violet.

SHADE - Color with black added to it.

SHAPE - A two-dimensional area or plane that may be open or closed, free-form or geometric. It can be found in nature or is made by humans.

STYLE - A set of characteristics of the art of a culture, a period, or school of art. It is the characteristic expression of an individual artist.

STYLIZED - Simplified; exaggerated.

TEXTURE - The surface quality of materials, either actual (tactile) or implied (visual). It is one of the elements of art.

THEME - An idea based on a particular subject.

TINT - Color lightened with white added to it.

TONE - Color shaded or darkened with gray (black plus white).

UNITY - Total visual effect in a composition achieved by the careful blending of the elements of art and the principles of design.

VALUE - Lightness or darkness of a hue or neutral color. A value scale shows the range of values from black to white.

VALUE SCALE - Scale showing the range of values from black to white and light to dark.

VARIETY - A principle of art concerned with combining one or more elements of art in different ways to create interest.

WARM COLORS - Colors suggesting warmth: red, yellow, and orange.

Painting – tempera paint, watercolor, acrylic paint, oil paint, encaustic… etc

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